Email this Article Print This Article When you think of main street businesses, you likely picture stores, restaurants and other businesses that cater to consumers. But there are actually a lot of opportunities for B2B businesses to make their mark on Main Street as well.
John Rutherfurd In Marchthe state legislature responded by appointing as a Commission the three men suggested by the Common Council to establish a comprehensive street plan for Manhattan: Greenwich Villagethen independent of New York City, and the current West Village were not part of the area the Commission was to deal with.
They held, for instance, the "exclusive power" to close streets that interfered with their plan, a plan which landowners as well as the mayor, the Common Council and all other citizens of the city had no choice but to accept.
The Commission's first chief surveyor was Charles Frederick Loss, who, like Mangin and the deceased Goerck, was an officially recognized city surveyor, a position he received contingent on becoming a naturalized American citizen.
Unfortunately Loss did not appear to be a very competent surveyor, as several of his ventures had serious errors, which eventually resulted in his being relieved of his position in Loss exhibited the same lack of ability as the chief surveyor for the Commission, and finally the Commission made an agreement with Loss that he would do only the first task that had been assigned to him: Loss was to deliver the map by May Instead, he was determining the topography and ground cover of the land and the placement of natural features such as hills, rocks, swamps, marshes, streams, and ponds, as well as man-made features such as houses, barns, stables, fences, footpaths, cleared fields and gardens.
He was also carefully noting the locations of the three north—south roads that Goerck had laid down as part of his survey of the Common Lands.
Goerck had not placed the lots and roads in the Common Lands in the context of the overall island, and this Randel did, thus allowing the Commissioners to know where, exactly, Goerck's Common Lands grid was.
This was important, because it could serve as a template for a grid for the entire island, should the Commission decide to go in that direction. Nonetheless, the potential for future problems was real. Gouverneur Morris asked the Common Council for a means of protecting the necessary actions of the surveyors, but, for political reasons, the council could not agree on a solution, and passed the buck, again, to the state legislature.
With the Commissioners threatening to resign if something wasn't done about the "vexatious interruptions", the legislature acted in with a law providing that if the needed actions to perform the survey could not be performed "without cutting trees or doing damages" and "reasonable notice" was to be provided by the Commission or the surveyors to the landowner, and they were to view the property together to assess the situation.
The new law did not completely stop lawsuits, but it cut down their number, and allowed Randel to go about his business with a degree of immunity from legal entanglements. Goerck had shown their relationship to the Bloomingdale Road to the west, much of which would become part of Broadway, and the East Post Road to the east, a road which would be demapped by the Commissioners Plan'.
Little is known about Randel's surveying in Finally, on November 29,with the surveying season for that season over and only four months left before they were to report out their plan, they seemed to have arrived at a decision. On that date, Morris informed the Common Council that although more work was left to be done "on the ground", the Commission itself had "completed their work" and would be able to make a report that would "compl[y] substantially, if not literally within the law, shewing [ sic ] all the streets which to be laid out The plan[ edit ] The format chosen by the Commissioners was a rectilinear grid, or "gridiron": Legal historian Hendrick Hartog writes that their choice was resonant with the political values of the country, which only recently gained independence from Great Britain.
According to Hartog, the grid was: Individual distinctions, whether cultural, charitable, economic, or whatever, would have to find their place within a fixed, republican spatial organization.
In addition, where the island was wider, there would be four additional lettered avenues running from Avenue A eastward to Avenue D.
The location of the cross streets was fixed at the boundaries of 5-acre 2. The basepoint for the cross streets was First Street: Peretz Squarea small, narrow triangular park bounded by Houston Street, 1st Streetand First Avenue, is the grid's cornerstone.
Historian Gerard Koeppel remarks that "while the grid brought order to the place, it also made it a place of extremes. By removing most of the topographical features which had once defined lot boundaries, the grid turned land into a commodity, which could be easily bought and sold in roughly equal-sized units, thus rationalizing the real estate market.
Zoning requirements also contributed to the order brought by the grid: This, of course, changed over time.
Public spaces[ edit ] Conspicuous by their relative absence from the plan were amenities for the city's population, including parks and plazas. The park officially became a part of Central Park as of They considered that if New York was a city such as Paris or London, located along the relatively small Seine and Thames River, then more parkland "for the benefit of fresh air and consequent preservation of health" would have been necessary.The Small Business Owner's Manual: Everything You Need to Know to Start Up and Run Your Business [Joe Kennedy] on plombier-nemours.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
An Owner's Manual provides fast, practical and direct advice and that's what you get with this book! The Small Business Owner's Manual is useful for newly minted entrepreneurs as well as seasoned business owners and .
The National Federation of Independent Business said its optimism index remains strong at in October. Although down slightly, that was still close to the index’s high. Find the latest business news on Wall Street, jobs and the economy, the housing market, personal finance and money investments and much more on ABC News.
Small business ideas, business plans, & tips for African entrepreneurs to start, run, & grow successful businesses. Small Business Exchange Inc., is the ultimate business information hub for small businesses, disadvantaged, Asian, Black, Hispanic Women and Disabled Western-owned Business. A new Labor Department rule would make it easier for small businesses to offer (k) plans, part of an effort to close a retirement-plan gap that affects millions of employees.