Spring Bound by Borders: Sociology of Law and Migration Law reflects how we have organized our social, economic, political and cultural relations. A good deal of sociological theory has developed to explain how and why laws have changed with the shift from older forms of socio-economic organization to capitalism.
Inequality and economic modelsThe Economics of Post-Modernity: Some modern writers situate the debut of property rights in the rise of agriculture, therefore landownership, grain storage, and the accumulation of artefacts but that is not necessarily correct.
As Veblen argued, the ownership of women, horses and livestock, as well as slaves, servants and soldiers, no doubt predates farming by many thousands of years. Neoclassical economists have been stuck with this framework ever since. To be sure the success of this approach as a disciplinary mechanism has been exceptional, relegating all challenges to fringe positions whose tenets are quite hard for those raised in the neoclassical tradition even to grasp.
The Russian Revolution and establishment of the Soviet Union made concrete the possibility on a grand scale of a socialist republic freed from feudal, capitalist or fascist control, and the Soviet victory in World War Two demonstrated the industrial and military potential of such a state, with the feat soon underscored by the outcome of the Chinese Civil War four years later.
Socialist prestige was high and against it, apart from the terror-power of the atomic bomb, the West needed to exhibit concrete and dramatic economic accomplishments as well as political discipline. This necessity was underscored at home in the Western countries by the power of trade unions and the expectations of veterans.
From these sources arose social democracy, democratic socialism and the welfare state, including in their international dimensions the Marshall Plan, the Bretton Woods institutions, eventually the Alliance for Progress, Food for Peace, PL and raft of similar initiatives, all of which were guided by the ethos of Cold War liberalism.
That flight at altitude cannot be sustained without fuel somewhat limited the aeronautical analogy but it was, at least, a message of hope and emulation.
Simon Kuznets, an economist of high practical distinctions, sketched out a distributional theory of the industrialisation process. Hirschman, a highly independent and original mind, explored the social psychological complications of the Kuznets insight in his concept of the tunnel effect.
In two lines of traffic stalled in a tunnel, the sight of one moving ahead lifts, rather than depresses, the spirits in the other line. However, Hirschman was careful to note that if the second line remains struck for too long, the effect will be reversed; hope will be replaced by frustration and eventually by rebellion.
In any event, the Cold War liberals and postwar American Keynesians knew that their place was to advance the optimistic vision of controllable and progressive democratic capitalism. And political authority in the West, however tied to leading financial and business interests, did realise at least from time to time that actual results were also necessary.
By the late s John Kenneth Galbraith could write that economists had lost interest in inequality. But the Swedish School was a secret to all but the Swedes.
In the post-war era the division of labour between neoclassical macroeconomics and pseudo-Keynesian macroeconomics was pioneered at MIT and disseminated worldwide from there. Macro held on to a narrow strip of economic territory: Distribution played no role. The personal distribution of income fell squarely into the microeconomics of labour markets, governed by supply and demand for various levels of skill, while the functional distribution was hardly spoken of at all except by the occasional house Marxist.
In consequence for the advanced countries there was no theory of changing inequality. The Kuznets evolution was supposedly complete. The Cobb-Douglas distribution theory with Hicks Neutral Technical change predicted stable functional shares: In graduate school in the s this author was told that subject was like watching grass grow.
Beginning in the late s and early s, circumstances began to force a change, perhaps first in the United States but not long after throughout much of the industrial and the developing worlds.
The point seemed obvious enough, but there was a subtle difficulty. The severing of micro from macro made it conceptually difficult for many economists to tie the Reagan Recession of as such to a distributional outcome. Instead, the emphasis fell on specific anti-worker political actions — the firing of air traffic controllers, deregulation of trucking, a radical-right National Labor Relations Board — when in fact the two sides of the economic phenomenon, the macro and the micro-political, were inseparable in practice.
Still, this was a minor muddle compared with what was to come.
It was only in the early s that mainstream economics began a concerted search for a less- contentious explanation of rising inequality, rooted in the labour market analysis to which distribution issues had been consigned.
It consisted in important instances of little more than widely separated surveys of earnings stratified by worker characteristics, and then largely confined to a small handful of wealthy countries.
“Discrimination” refers to the practice of unfairly treating a person or group of people differently than other people or groups of people (Merriam-Webster Dictionary).). “Inequality,” a closely related term, refers to the difference in opportunities, resources, and experiences between people or social groups. Theories of Social Inequality In briefly evaluating the classical and modern explanations of social inequality, it is essential that we step outside the realm of our own lives, class position, and discard any assumptions we might have about the nature of inequality. MODERN THEORIES OF SOCIAL STRATIFICATION Shown relaxing at home in a picture taken by his wife, C. Wright EXPLANATIONS OF SOCIAL STRATIFICATION: STRATIFICATION THEORIES social inequality among different strata in the amounts of scarce and.
Undaunted, Bound and Johnson set the template for neoclassical investigation thereafter. Rising inequality was a matter of changing relative demand for a peculiar characteristic called skill, unobservable in practice but usually approximated by the number of years spent in school.
The remedy to the resultant inequality could only be an increased supply of skill — more years in school. And this remedy had the peculiar characteristic that if enough people pursued it, the advantage accruing to each would diminish until it disappeared.
Education was economically worthwhile only if it could be effectively restricted — a truism that is nevertheless in its way subversive. At Harvard, the high priests Claudia Goldin and Larry Katz eventually produced a thick book from which the ugly class politics of the s had miraculously disappeared.
In American economics, then and since, a thick book endorsed by Larry Summers is generally sufficient to win an argument; in this profession, proof by intimidation works. Such an alternative was presented by Adrian Wood in an argument related to North-South trade, which he argued would expand the effective supply of unskilled workers in the Global North, driving down their wages in rich countries but raising them among the poor where Wood argued factory workers form an intermediate skill class thus moving inequality in opposite directions in the two spheres or hemispheres.
It was at this point in the mids that analysis based loosely on the Kuznets hypothesis revived. Thanks in part to efforts at the World Bank to begin to compile a comprehensive global data set of inequality measures, along with income measures prepared by the Penn World Tables and Purchasing Power Parity PPP estimates of the relative purchasing power of different national currencies.“Discrimination” refers to the practice of unfairly treating a person or group of people differently than other people or groups of people (Merriam-Webster Dictionary).).
“Inequality,” a closely related term, refers to the difference in opportunities, resources, and experiences between people or social groups.
Does economic inequality breed political violence? For almost half a century, scholars have tried to test this assumption, finding little empirical support for a statistical relationship between the two variables. This article provides a critical review of this literature, starting out with the link between so-called vertical (inter-individual) inequality and conflict.
Looking at both classical and contemporary theories, the analysis summarizes the major theories of criminal causation, beginning with early "spiritual" explanations for crime and extending through the classical school, the positivist school, and to contemporary environmentalist, individualist, and integrative theories on criminal behavior.
The Department of Criminology, Law and Society focuses on the problem of crime and on understanding the social, cultural, political, and economic forces that interact with the law. Sociology is the study of human social life.
Sociology has many sub-sections of study, ranging from the analysis of conversations to the development of theories to try to understand how the entire world works. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita (per person) is often used as a measure of average income of a population.
It is the total market value of the slow of all goods and services in an economy for a .