Business organization - Management and control Distribution is the movement of a good or service from the source to the final customer, consumer, or user.
Overview[ edit ] Fig. Wineglass model for IMRaD structure. The above scheme schematically shows how to line up the information in IMRaD writing. It has two characteristics, first one is "top-bottom symmetric shape", second one is "change of width", that means "the top is wide and it narrows towards the middle, and then widens again as it goes down toward the bottom".
First one, "top-bottom symmetric shape" represents the symmetry of the story development. Second one, the change of the width of above diagram, represents the change of generality of the viewpoint.
Original research articles are typically structured in this basic order    Introduction — Why was the study undertaken? What was the research questionthe tested hypothesis or the purpose of the research?
Methods — When, where, and how was the study done? What materials were used or who was included in the study groups patients, etc.
Results — What answer was found to the research question; what did the study find? Was the tested hypothesis true? Discussion — What might the answer imply and why does it matter?
How does it fit in with what other researchers have found? What are the perspectives for future research? First one is "top-bottom symmetric shape" and Second one is "changing width" i.
The First one, "top-bottom symmetric shape", represents the symmetry of the story development. Note the shape of the top trapezoid representing the structure of Introduction and the shape of the trapezoid at the bottom are reversed. See the relationship between abovementioned ab and ef.
The Second one, "the change of the width" of the schema shown in Fig. As along the flow of the story development, when the viewpoints are more general, the width of the diagram is expressed wider, and when they are more specialized and focused, the width is expressed narrower.
As the standard format of academic journals[ edit ] The IMRAD format has been adopted by a steadily increasing number of academic journals since the first half of the 20th century. The IMRAD structure has come to dominate academic writing in the sciences, most notably in empirical biomedicine.
Although the IMRAD structure originates in the empirical sciences, it now also regularly appears in academic journals across a wide range of disciplines.
Many scientific journals now not only prefer this structure but also use the IMRAD acronym as an instructional device in the instructions to their authors, recommending the use of the four terms as main headings.
For example, it is explicitly recommended in the " Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals " issued by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors previously called the Vancouver guidelines: The text of observational and experimental articles is usually but not necessarily divided into the following sections: Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion.
This so-called "IMRAD" structure is not an arbitrary publication format but rather a direct reflection of the process of scientific discovery.Managerial accounting is designed to introduce the fundamentals of managerial accounting to both accounting and non-accounting majors. It covers accounting and management decision making in both short-term and long-term strategic situations.
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· Functional structure. The functional structure groups positions into work units based on similar activities, skills, expertise, and resources (see Figure 1 for a functional organizational chart).
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